Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry: Methods and Applications (SIGMA)

SIGMA 20 (2024), 015, 27 pages      arXiv:2211.01247
Contribution to the Special Issue on Symmetry, Invariants, and their Applications in honor of Peter J. Olver

Superposition Formulae for the Geometric Bäcklund Transformations of the Hyperbolic and Elliptic Sine-Gordon and Sinh-Gordon Equations

Filipe Kelmer and Keti Tenenblat
Department of Mathematics, Universidade de Brasília, Brazil

Received August 10, 2023, in final form February 03, 2024; Published online February 15, 2024

We provide superposition formulae for the six cases of Bäcklund transformations corresponding to space-like and time-like surfaces in the 3-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space. In each case, the surfaces have constant negative or positive Gaussian curvature and they correspond to solutions of one of the following equations: the sine-Gordon, the sinh-Gordon, the elliptic sine-Gordon and the elliptic sinh-Gordon equation. The superposition formulae provide infinitely many solutions algebraically after the first integration of the Bäcklund transformation. Such transformations and the corresponding superposition formulae provide solutions of the same hyperbolic equation, while they show an unusual property for the elliptic equations. The Bäcklund transformation alternates solutions of the elliptic sinh-Gordon equation with those of the elliptic sine-Gordon equation and the superposition formulae provide solutions of the same elliptic equation. Explicit examples and illustrations are given.

Key words: superposition formulae; Bäcklund transformation; sine-Gordon equation; sinh-Gordon equation; elliptic sine-Gordon; elliptic sinh-Gordon.

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