Symmetry, Integrability and Geometry: Methods and Applications (SIGMA)

SIGMA 20 (2024), 012, 23 pages      arXiv:2305.00529
Contribution to the Special Issue on Symmetry, Invariants, and their Applications in honor of Peter J. Olver

$\mathfrak{gl}(3)$ Polynomial Integrable System: Different Faces of the 3-Body/${\mathcal A}_2$ Elliptic Calogero Model

Alexander V. Turbiner, Juan Carlos Lopez Vieyra and Miguel A. Guadarrama-Ayala
Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Ciudad de México, Mexico

Received July 26, 2023, in final form January 22, 2024; Published online February 03, 2024

It is shown that the $\mathfrak{gl}(3)$ polynomial integrable system, introduced by Sokolov-Turbiner in [J. Phys. A 48 (2015), 155201, 15 pages, arXiv:1409.7439], is equivalent to the $\mathfrak{gl}(3)$ quantum Euler-Arnold top in a constant magnetic field. Their Hamiltonian as well as their third-order integral can be rewritten in terms of $\mathfrak{gl}(3)$ algebra generators. In turn, all these $\mathfrak{gl}(3)$ generators can be represented by the non-linear elements of the universal enveloping algebra of the 5-dimensional Heisenberg algebra $\mathfrak{h}_5(\hat{p}_{1,2},\hat{q}_{1,2}, I)$, thus, the Hamiltonian and integral are two elements of the universal enveloping algebra $U_{\mathfrak{h}_5}$. In this paper, four different representations of the $\mathfrak{h}_5$ Heisenberg algebra are used: (I) by differential operators in two real (complex) variables, (II) by finite-difference operators on uniform or exponential lattices. We discovered the existence of two 2-parametric bilinear and trilinear elements (denoted $H$ and $I$, respectively) of the universal enveloping algebra $U(\mathfrak{gl}(3))$ such that their Lie bracket (commutator) can be written as a linear superposition of nine so-called artifacts - the special bilinear elements of $U(\mathfrak{gl}(3))$, which vanish once the representation of the $\mathfrak{gl}(3)$-algebra generators is written in terms of the $\mathfrak{h}_5(\hat{p}_{1,2},\hat{q}_{1,2}, I)$-algebra generators. In this representation all nine artifacts vanish, two of the above-mentioned elements of $U(\mathfrak{gl}(3))$ (called the Hamiltonian $H$ and the integral $I$) commute(!); in particular, they become the Hamiltonian and the integral of the 3-body elliptic Calogero model, if $(\hat{p},\hat{q})$ are written in the standard coordinate-momentum representation. If $(\hat{p},\hat{q})$ are represented by finite-difference/discrete operators on uniform or exponential lattice, the Hamiltonian and the integral of the 3-body elliptic Calogero model become the isospectral, finite-difference operators on uniform-uniform or exponential-exponential lattices (or mixed) with polynomial coefficients. If $(\hat{p},\hat{q})$ are written in complex $(z, \bar{z})$ variables the Hamiltonian corresponds to a complexification of the 3-body elliptic Calogero model on ${\mathbb C^2}$.

Key words: elliptic Calogero model; integrable systems; 3-body systems.

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