
SIGMA 2 (2006), 013, 7 pages quantph/0602002
https://doi.org/10.3842/SIGMA.2006.013
Operator Gauge Symmetry in QED
Siamak Khademi ^{a} and Sadollah Nasiri ^{a, b}
^{a)} Department of Physics, Zanjan University, P.O. Box 313, Zanjan, Iran
^{b)} Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic
Sciences, IASBS, Zanjan, Iran
Received October 09, 2005, in final form January 17, 2006; Published online January 30, 2006
Abstract
In this paper, operator gauge transformation, first
introduced by Kobe, is applied to Maxwell's equations and
continuity equation in QED. The gauge invariance is satisfied
after quantization of electromagnetic fields. Inherent
nonlinearity in Maxwell's equations is obtained as a direct result
due to the nonlinearity of the operator gauge transformations. The
operator gauge invariant Maxwell's equations and corresponding
charge conservation are obtained by defining the generalized
derivatives of the first and second kinds.
Conservation laws for the real and virtual charges are
obtained too. The additional terms in the field strength tensor
are interpreted as electric and magnetic polarization of the
vacuum.
Key words:
gauge transformation; Maxwell's equations; electromagnetic fields.
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